My Story

My Story About My Health

Oscar Wilde said, although I forget the exact quote, that the most boring people in the world are those that when asked about their health – ( like – “How are you today?” ) – tell you!

Oscar Wilde
Image by Laura Longenecker via Flickr

It’s true too, some people are very self involved and enthusiastically tell you waaaay too much information.

It’s also true that birds of a feather have an interest in other people with similar problems. Because people with problems, health or otherwise, set out to solve them and often succeed, so we can learn from them.

So when we have a problem, we look for people to talk to who might have solutions. The first port of call is the doctor. After that 5 minutes, we might turn to a book or the internet. After a week of scouring through basic information some of it starts to sink in and make sense…

…and that’s when we are ready to become truly boring by telling people all about our condition and sharing our new found information. Oscar Wilde also said

Success is a science; if you have the conditions, you get the result.

As our first round of treatments start to do their job – or not – we finally go looking for people who have real stories to tell that we can relate to. They’ve been there, they’ve tried stuff, they’ve walked the path already and have tips and explanations that our poor overworked doctors have no time to tell us.

The place to find these “birds of a feather” is in local support groups, or in the health boards or forums on the internet (although many threads are written by ghosts of the past, who you’ll probably never read a recent comment from now) . Still, often there are new sufferers, or those still involved in looking for new treatment options – who will answer your questions and offer you virtual (or real) hugs. Some of these people get weary of repeating advice and make documents, or their own websites, so they can just post a link to what they have learned.

What’s up Doc?

Doctors are often leery of patients who do their own internet research and want to have some control over their health treatment options. They will handle this in different ways, according to how they are approached and their own temperament or ego. Either way – it’s your health, and your choice as to how it is managed.

Just don’t forget that even though patients are currently walking the path, doctors have years of experience of watching them fall off it. Try to find a stable balance between conventional treatments which are tested for our safety before being released and alternative treatments that range from snake oil to grandma Moses folk remedy.

Personally I use alternate treatments as often as I do prescription medications, maybe more. I read and look for alternatives and believe that supplements help me stay healthy with less pain. I’ve eaten a good diet most of my life, exercised regularly and have pretty good genes. Still I got sick as so many people do in my 50’s.

This is my story, feel free to ignore it if you get bored! But maybe if we have “feathers in common”, you might find it interesting. If so feel free to comment and tell me your story….

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When Candida Becomes Resistant

It’s a shock when Candida becomes resistant to the usual treatment for it, whether that be the caneston cream or fluconazole or their brand equivalents for your country. It is such a common thing to have a bit of thrush after a course of antibiotics that you don’t even bother the doctor with it, you just go to the chemist. Within a few days the irritation is gone and you forget all about it. If it has always worked this way for you, you may even be suspicious about websites offering cures thinking they are a scam – because surely, all people need do is use the cream!

candida cartoon
Your doctor may not say this in words but its what he’s thinking.

I know I thought that way until I got an infection that couldn’t be quickly cured, and then I was just confused – what do I do now? It was even more confusing when the doctor had no answer.

Those sites that I was initially suspicious of suddenly became important reading matter. But there is so much information and so many different remedies and it’s very confusing.

What to do if your Candida is probably Candidiasis

First – Get blood tests

So the first thing to be done – and which I did eventually – is to get blood work done and check for immune problems. Candida is a normal part of our body and only generally gets out of hand when the body’s natural defences are lowered for some reason.After my blood tests I discovered I was hypo thyroid . But people with other disorders, like diabetes, are also prone to resistant candida. So if you’ve already tried the usual treatments for thrush and failed to cure it – go see the doctor and ask if you need to get blood tests.

Second – Read up on Candida

You’re doing that already or you wouldn’t be reading this, but don’t stop at a simple explanation. On the top menu there is a link called Reference links. This is where I have collected the links to websites I found really useful, especially the health boards ( forums) where patients give support to other patients. I will also add more articles here as I find the time, but on the health boards you’ll find people who have the same type of problems as you which may not be true of me. You may be looking for a cure of oral thrush or candida and another disease – use the links to find the forums and then search there for more information.

Third – Try some suggested treatments and keep notes

You don’t have to write a book (or a website like me!) just, keep a diary and write down what you tried and whether it helped, how long you used it for and other symptoms that occurred.

If you are lucky you’ll cure candida within two months, if not generally you’ll manage to reduce the irritation and keep it manageable until you find your cure for it.  Some people say this may take a year or more. The Candida diet is pretty strict but it does help and you may be required to restrict yourself to it for a few months before a cure will hold.

Start by removing all cane sugar from your diet and gradually reduce or refrain from eating the other food types as you can manage. Think of it as being good for you – either way!


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3 Treatments For Hypothyroidism

3 Treatments For Hypothyroidism

There is no cure for autoimmune hypothyroidism. A thyroxine replacement medicine will have to be taken for the rest of a person’s life and dosages must be carefully monitored. As there are only three options, you would think there’d be less controversy. Instead every forum thread and article comments thread are long and passionate about which treatment is best and why.

Alternate Opinions About Hypothyroidism Treatments

Some studies have suggested that subclinical hypothyroidism does not need to be treated. There is always the risk of overtreatment and thereby provoking hyperthyroidism. This article discusses the medical viewpoint on subclinical hypothyroidism in detail

The hormone feedback of the thyroid.
Image via Wikipedia

The thyroid also takes time to adjust when being treated, so it may take 6mth to a year before the right treatment stabilises and mitigates your hyperthyroid symptoms consistently.

The treatment of hypothyroidism may be conducted by a doctor, a natureopath or an endocrinologist.

This is the viewpoint of an endocrinologist on dessicated thyroid

I love to read the comments below the articles -they are true picture of what works for people.

Those physicians that are familiar and open minded about the combinations of the three treatments for hypothyroidism are highly sought by those patients who do not respond positively to the medically accepted T4 alone treatment.

Adding T3 to T4 Treatment

Under normal circumstances, the thyroid releases 100-125 nmol of thyroxine (T4) daily and only small amounts of triiodothyronine (T3). The half-life of T4 is approximately 7-10 days. T4, a prohormone, is converted to T3, the active form of thyroid hormone, in the peripheral tissues by 5’-deiodination.

At first, compensatory mechanisms maintain T3 levels. Decreased production of T4 causes an increase in the secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland. TSH stimulates hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and thyroid T4-5′-deiodinase activity. This, in turn, causes the thyroid to release more T3.

First treatment is to provide T4 known generically as levothyroxine, with brand names including Synthroid, Levoxyl, and Levothroid . It appears however that some patients do not convert the T4 easily to T3 and therefore their symptoms are not eased by taking T4 alone. T3 treatment is more expensive and requires the patient to take it twice or more a day but may be added to the treatment if blood test results are not brought back into range.

Compounded slow-release T3 has been suggested for use in combination with T4. It’s advocates argue it completely mitigates many of the symptoms of hypothyroidism and greatly improves quality of life.

Desiccated  Thyroid

T4 and T3 are synthetic prescription treatments. It is also possible to get desiccated (dried) thyroid. This is a prescription thyroid hormone replacement drug, prepared from the thyroid gland of pigs. Brand names including Nature-throid, Armour Thyroid, and Westhroid.  Desiccated  thyroid has been used safely for over 100 years and until synthetic thyroxine was introduced in the 50s, it was the only thyroid hormone replacement medication. It includes T1 and T2 which are rarely mentioned and are considered irrelevant as a treatment.

Desiccated  thyroid is now considered to be “old school” and a controversial alternative practioner treatment that is rejected by the conventional medical establishment.

However many patients swear by it, having  complete mitigation of their symptoms with no side effects. Some people hate it as it appears to be too strong and tips them into hyper. Others are completely happy with T4 and never try anything else.



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TSH Levels Hypothyroidism

TSH Levels and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Early hypothyroidism may display very mild symptoms or have none at all.

Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs when thyrotropin (TSH) levels are elevated but below the limit representing overt hypothyroidism. The levels of the active hormones,  thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are normal and will be within the laboratory reference ranges.

Symptoms become more readily apparent in clinical (or overt) hypothyroidism.

In primary hypothyroidism, TSH levels are high and T4 and T3 levels are low. TSH usually increases when T4 and T3 levels drop. TSH prompts the thyroid gland to make more hormone.

The only validated test to diagnose primary hypothyroidism, is a blood test to measure thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). However it is not totally conclusive, as these levels can also be affected by non-thyroidal illnesses.

High levels of TSH indicate that the thyroid is not producing sufficient levels of thyroid hormones (mainly thyroxine (T4) but also triiodothyronine (T3) in smaller amounts). However, measuring just TSH fails to diagnose secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism. So if the TSH is normal and hypothyroidism is still suspected, further blood testing may be required. Misdiagnosis is common in hypothyroidism, with types of thyroid dysfunction failing to be identified immediately by some laboratory tests. Further tests may be conducted such as…

Measure T3, T4

Free triiodothyronine (fT3)
Free levothyroxine (fT4)
Total T3
Total T4

or other things such as…

Free T3 from 24-hour urine catch
Antithyroid antibodies — for evidence of autoimmune diseases that may be damaging the thyroid gland
Serum cholesterol — which may be elevated in hypothyroidism
Prolactin — as a widely available test of pituitary function
Testing for anemia, including ferritin
Basal body temperature

(S)-Thyroxine_Structural_Formulae L-Thyroxine_...
Image via Wikipedia

There is a range of medical opinion on what agreed upon reference points a patient should be treated with thyroxine, the typical treatment for overt hypothyroidism.

Reference ranges have been debated regarding TSH. The lab that did my results in Australia used 0.4–4.0 mIU/L .  As of 2003, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (ACEE) considers 0.3–3.0 mIU/L within normal range. Previously 0.5–5.0 mIU/L was used, and many doctors (as reported by patients in the health forums) do not treat until the range is over 10.


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Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

A medical student checking blood pressure usin...
Image via Wikipedia

Hypothyroidism usually develops slowly and early symptoms can be very mild to imperceptible. Many symptoms are at first brushed aside as a normal part of the ageing process. However when such symptoms group together or become more severe, it’s time to make notes about them and go see your doctor and request a blood test.

Signs of hypothyroidism indicate that the body is shutting down and not coping. They include the following symptoms:

Early Signs

Dry, itchy, scaly skin
Thin, brittle fingernails
Dry coarse hair,

Sore eyes, blurred vision
Puffiness around or sunken eyes

Sleep disturbances

Increased sensitivity to cold
Decreased perspiration


Slowed speech and movements
Lethargy, apathy, no energy

Depression, broody thoughts
Forgetfulness, impaired memory
Confusion, unable to concentrate

Fatigue, sleepiness

Muscle cramps,
Muscle tension, tightness
Poor muscle tone (hypotonia)
Joint pain

Weight gain and water retention


Symptoms more specific to Hashimoto thyroiditis:

Feeling of fullness in the throat

Painless thyroid enlargement


Neck pain, sore throat, or both

Low-grade fever

Later Signs


Elevated serum cholesterol

Anaemia caused by impaired haemoglobin synthesis (decreased EPO), impaired intestinal iron and folate absorption or B12 deficiency from pernicious anemia

Slow speech and a hoarse, breaking voice – deepening of the voice can also be noticed, caused by Reinke’s Edema.

Dry puffy skin, esp of face
Increase in Hair loss
Thinning of the outer third of the eyebrows (sign of Hertoghe)

Abnormal menstrual cycles
Fertility problems

Thyroid-Related Depression
Irritability and mood instability

Dull facial expression
Coarse facial features

Sluggish reflexes
Weakness in the extremities

Bradycardia (slow heart rate – pulse – fewer than sixty beats per minute)

Blood pressure – Decreased systolic blood pressure and increased diastolic blood pressure

Low basal body temperature

Increased need for sleep

Shortness of breath with a shallow and slow respiratory pattern

Less Common Signs

Puffy face, hands and feet
Pericardial effusion (fluid around the heart)
Abdominal distension, ascites
Nonpitting edema (myxedema)
Pitting edema of lower extremities
Hyporeflexia with delayed relaxation, ataxia, or both

Paresthesia and nerve entrapment syndromes (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome)

Hyperprolactinemia  Galactorrhea

Decreased hearing, deafness

Decreased libido in men due to impairment of testicular testosterone synthesis

Decreased sense of taste and smell (anosmia)Difficulty swallowing

Impaired memory
Impaired cognitive function (brain fog) and inattentiveness.

A slow heart rate with ECG changes including low voltage signals. Diminished cardiac output and decreased contractility

Reactive (or post-prandial) hypoglycemia

Yellowing of the skin due to impaired conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A (carotoderma)

Impaired renal function with decreased glomerular filtration rate

Acute psychosis (myxedema madness) (a rare presentation of hypothyroidism)

Macroglossia ( Enlarged tongue)

Some people with hyperthyroidism will have few and others will have many symptoms – each person is different. Also – groups of these symptoms may be caused by something else entirely and not indicative of hyperthyroidism. Help your doctor by keeping a note of all your own symptoms and ask their opinion. S/he will send you for blood tests and find out what’s going on.

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What is Hypothyroidism?

What is Hypothyroidism?

The pituitary gland and hypothalamus both control the thyroid. When thyroid hormone levels drop, the hypothalamus secretes TSH Releasing Hormone (TRH), which alerts the pituitary to produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

The major endocrine glands of the body. Pituit...
Image via Wikipedia

The thyroid keeps your metabolism under control with thyroid hormone, which it makes by extracting iodine from the blood.

Every cell in your body depends on the thyroid to manage its metabolism.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid fails to make enough of these hormones.

When the thyroid gland is unable to produce sufficient amounts of  thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) then problems start to occur in all of the body’s systems as the normal bodily functions start to slow down.

All the body hormones work together, so that changes in one effect others. When our body is young this generally works like a well oiled machine. When we pass middle age, the changes affect us more.

This is a possible reason why more women than men appear to be affected by hyperthyroidism especially after they turn 50.

There are three types of hypothyroidism.

The most common is primary hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland itself becomes diseased and fails to produce sufficient amounts of the thyroid hormone. The most common forms include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease) and radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism.

Secondary hypothyroidism is caused by problems with the pituitary gland and accounts for less than 5-10% of hypothyroidism disorders. It occurs if the pituitary gland does not create enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce the required amount of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. It is usually caused by damage to the pituitary gland, as by a tumor, radiation, or surgery.

Tertiary hypothyroidism results when the hypothalamus fails to produce sufficient thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). TRH prompts the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Hence tertiary may also be termed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis hypothyroidism. It accounts for less than 5% of hypothyroidism cases.

Patients who have hypothyroidism should exercise caution with certain activities, especially if an activity has a risk of injury (eg, operating presses or heavy equipment, driving, heavy physical labour and contact sports. If their treatment is not yet stabilised and they are having difficulty maintaining concentration in low-stimulus activities, they may have slowed reaction times.

They may also be at risk for ligamental injury, particularly from excessive force across joints due to generalized hypotonia. Hypotonia is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.

Hypothyroidism may be linked to other autoimmune diseases, such as Addisons disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus, Euthyroid Sick Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, Lupus, Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome & Vitiligo.

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Your Thyroid Manages Your Metabolism

Front view of neck.
Image via Wikipedia

The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland at the front of the throat just below the Adam’s apple. Our thyroid gland regulates our Metabolism and is responsible for creating hormones that drive several metabolic systems including our growth, both physical and mental, and our energy stores.

Around one in 20 people will experience some form of thyroid dysfunction (either overactive or underactive) in their life. Thyroid problems tend to affect a larger percentage of women more than men and the risk of thyroid dysfunction increases as you age.

Your metabolism is your body’s ability to break down food and convert it to energy. Food is like fuel for our bodies and each person uses it at a different rate. This is why you often hear about some people having  a fast or a slow metabolism.

Metabolism is determined by measuring the amount of oxygen used by the body over a specific amount of time. If the measurement is made at rest, it is known as the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of calories one eats and the amount of calories the body uses. A negative energy balance may lead to weight loss as occurs with hyperthyroidism. The BMR in a person with hypothyroidism is decreased, so an underactive thyroid is generally associated with some weight gain.

Measurement of the BMR was one of the earliest tests used to assess  thyroid dysfunction. Patients whose thyroid glands were underactive (hypo) were found to have low BMRs, and those with overactive (hyper) thyroid glands had high BMRs.

Hyper Or Hypo Thyroidism?

If you have Hyperthyroidism when your thyroid produces too much thyroid hormone, you may feel wired, anxious and impatient, you may also be prone to sweating and a pounding heart.

If you have Hypothyroidism when your thyroid hormone production is insufficient, you will feel the cold, get tired easily, feel slow, think slow and have insufficient energy to tackle things.

Diagnosis and Measurement of Thyroid function

Thyroid dysfunction is diagnosed after blood tests are taken and may be treated with drugs or sometimes surgery. An overactive thyroid may be suppressed by taking a specific drug. An underactive thyroid is generally treated with a supplement of thyroid hormone. The patients doctor will order blood tests every 6 weeks to three months until the right dose is settled on. Blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature are simple checks that people can make to chart their treatment progress themselves.

If you have had tests done and need help to decipher them check out Optimal Lab Values

This info is a bit simplistic. Different types of thyroid disease will require different treatments. The thyroid gland may be damaged in many different ways, so you will need to look for websites with comprehensive Thyroid information that is specific to your personal diagnosis. The following 2 websites  gives simple easy to understand information.

Endocrine Web information on thyroid dysfunctions.

Web MD info on thyroid dysfunction








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An Underactive Thyroid, Hypothyroidism

I have an underactive thyroid – or Hypothyroidism

I guess I have an advantage over many people hearing such a diagnosis for the first time, as I have already done a fair bit of research on the thyroid gland. Although previously I was concentrating on overactive thyroid glands or Graves disease, not underactive thyroid. My husband has lived with Graves disease for 10 years now, by keeping his thyroid hormone production suppressed with a prescription drug.

Scheme of the thyroid gland.
Image via Wikipedia

The treatment for hypothyroidism is of course the opposite to this – as the gland needs stimulating to improve it’s rate of thyroid hormone production.

I started to research thyroid from the other side of the spectrum. Honestly I’ve read heaps now about thyroid disease and I still have so many questions

The thyroid gland controls your metabolism and affects your heart, muscles, bones, and cholesterol . The thyroid is how your body turns food into fuel, and therefore it regulates weight and energy.

My husband appears to stay naturally thin by being in such a hurry to get things done, but in actual fact his metabolism is high because his thyroid is overactive and is called hyper – thyroidism.

In contrast I can now blame my belly fat, lethargy and desire to sleep in on a low metabolism caused by hypo – thyroidism (ie – it’s not me that’s underactive – it’s my thyroid 🙂 ).

Well at least I can blame my natural laziness on something physical now!

Treatment for Hypothyroidism

Oroxine (Thyroxine or synthetic T4) is the first line of hypothyroid treatment. I also take Lugols solution, or iodine: this is what the thyroid uses to make its hormones and iodine deficiency is a cause of hypothyroidism in areas where iodine is not freely available in food sources.

Dr R suggests that I start a strict diet as he doesn’t think that a full recovery is probable without a lot of attention being paid to what is good for me – that is not what diet is good for everyone – but what I need to eat. Honestly, grateful though I am for his alternative knowledge which is rare in a GP , I am sceptical about extremes – at least what appear to be extremes to me at this point.

Luckily Dr R is used to sceptics and knows it will take me time to adjust to this, like most people.

So after this first visit I start taking oroxine and lugal’s solution, and agree to make a start on a gluten free, dairy free, yeast free, soy free and sugar free diet. Meat and vegetables in other words! Until I can figure out how to cook with nut and grain flours that are gluten free. He also suggests the vegetables are eaten raw and grown organically. So I join a co-op to get organic vegetables. He also recommends coconut oil, apple cider vinegar and colloidal minerals.

Now although this was a long appointment with Dr R it was not long enough to inform me what what it is all for, or how to and when to take medications. I knew most of this because I’d already been searching for this information.

I worked with Dr R, asking for clarification about things I didn’t know or couldn’t understand, but didn’t expect him to give me a lecture on thyroid 101 and it’s treatment. All of us need to be proactive about our health, because our doctor’s just don’t have the time. So much good information is available on the internet anyway, so all you need is the time to study and learn, and the courage to try things. I have collected a lot of the links I found helpful about candida and thyroid so you can follow through without doing your own googling at all.

Some of these diet restrictions are for candida and some are for the thyroid. Between this appointment with Dr R and the next, I make a list of supplements and treatments that people actually recommend in the forums (not treatments just included in a list of cures repeated from other sources – but treatments they have tried and can still be bothered to write about) so I can ask him which are more important. I can’t afford too many or the too expensive options but I can get some and luckily most of the better treatments are relatively cheap.

Once I’ve finished writing up the basic story here, I’ll write up the best treatments I’ve settled into and let you know what and why I have had success with some things. I will probably continue to adjust some supplements as time goes on, but I can tell that some of these are truly essential for me to feel well during this stage of treatment. I’m hoping that they will not always be so, as the expense of these supplements is quite high. But if they are ….

There’s isn’t any science to this I’m sorry. I have kept basic records of things but there are so many variables and I don’t have the patience to take one thing or make one change and see what happens, and document it. It’s just my guesswork about what things do and why,  so be it.

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Blood Test Results

Blood Test Results

You don’t need to see the blood test results that were within the normal ranges, but it may or may not be useful to see those that were outside of the normal ranges to compare to your own. These amounts are from an Australian pathology lab, so the ranges and format of amounts may not be comparable to your own blood test, if your lab results are from a different country. I have difficulty relating the format of free T4 and T3 results on US websites to my own test results, and I haven’t yet worked out how to compare these, in particular, accurately.

Dr G – Lab results from 24.01.2011 ( see chart below)

Blood Test Kit
Image by Alegrya via Flickr

When Dr G got the pathology report back with my blood test results, he called me immediately and asked me to come in because he was concerned about my high cholesterol. The tests showed out of range amounts for high TSH at 7.55, high cholesterol of 8 with LDL of 5.7, low Ferritin at 7, and high red cell folate at 2113. What the hell does all that mean?

Leaving aside the TSH for now,  this first blood test indicated my Ferritin or iron stores were low (tho I’m not yet anaemic) – I kinda qualified that with the fact that I donate blood every 3 months.

My bad cholesterol (LDL ) was high – which meant that according to present medical guidelines I am at greater risk of heart attack. Yes, my diet could be improved I thought, but the body makes cholesterol for a reason. I didn’t have a clue about red cell folate, but that appears to indicate the cells need for more oxygen. And as breathlessness was part of my symptomatology, I came to this appointment with the intention to get a script for Champix to give up smoking.

I could explain everything (to myself) except the low thyroid result. But as Dr G didn’t appear to feel this was as important as the bad cholesterol result, I shelved thinking about thyroid. Besides I was looking for a cure for candida, it was the middle of Summer and this wasn’t even mentioned until I asked about the nurses test! Dr G was stumped – he had no answer for me. I was cranky and frustrated and finding it hard to know what to do.

So I shrugged and went home, after making a commitment to have more tests in 3 months. I started to make a (pretty feeble) attempt to bring my diet back under control and made sure I was getting a (little) bit more exercise. But I concentrated on quitting smoking by taking Champix.

I Did Quit Smoking! Yeah!!!

If you’re unfamiliar with it, Champix is a prescription drug you take which blocks the brain’s pleasure centre that rewards you when you satisfy your craving for nicotine by smoking. As there is no longer any satisfaction when you have a smoke, this drug ( with a firm will and a deadline) makes it possible to cut down the cigarettes and eventually quit with less stress.

My deadline was reluctantly set in the first month and although I missed it, I did manage to quit smoking. (How easy it is to say – yet how hard it was to actually do!). Anyway – I felt that quitting smoking was the most important contribution to my good health I could give. So this was my focus for February and I had my last full cigarette on the 12th of March 2011. Champix may not work for everyone but it came through for me and made quitting.00000000000000 relatively easy to do.

Unfortunately Champix messed with my sleep and my head something fierce. I seemed to be in a permanent daze – and my ability to concentrate went out the window totally. I couldn’t get to sleep or stay asleep. It made me feel mildly nauseous and gave me mild headaches. I hated it so much I didn’t take the full 3 months, only the first month. I stopped when I ran out of pills.

But I was sure I would not start smoking again, however strong the cravings sometimes were. I did have the odd drag now and then when out drinking, but kept telling myself it was foul, which it was. I don’t even have cravings very often now, I rarely think of it any more.

Blood Test Date * 24.01.2011 * 16.07.2011  Lab   Targets

TSH * 7.55 * 45.3 mU/L 0.40 – 4.00
Free T4 13.9 * 7.6 pmol/L 9.0 – 19.0
Free T3 * 2.1 pmol/L 2.6 – 6.00
cholesterol * 8 mmol/L 3.9 – 5.5
triglycerides 0.9 mmol/L 0.5 – 1.7
HDL 1.9 mmol/L 0.9 – 2.1
LDL * 5.7 mmol/L 1.7 – 3.5
Ferritin * 7 * 23 ug/L 30 – 300
Iron 14.7 umol/L 5.0 – 30.0
transferrin 3.1 g/L 2.0 – 3.2
TIBC ( Calc) 68 umol/L 46 – 70
Saturation 22 % 10 – 45
B12/ Red Cell Folate
Vitamin B12 493 pmol/L 145 – 637
Red Cell Folate * 2113 nmol/L 776 – 1784
homocysteine 10.2 umol/L 5.0 – 12.0

Anyway, time got away from me and it was nearer six months than three when I went back to a doctor to request new blood tests. Some of this was because I needed a new doctor, one I could talk to and who would listen to me and what I wanted. But I was also just finding it hard to make decisions about anything, and I was tired and in pain all the time. Anyway I finally found and made an appointment with Dr R and wrote him out a concise medical history and list of symptoms, and went and asking for diagnosis and new blood tests.

The second column of blood test results above are from 16.07.2011. Dr R didn’t request cholesterol or red cell folate this time but my iron stores had improved (if not quite enough).

The Thyroid result was the kicker. My TSH went from 7.55 to 45.3 while both Free T4 and T3 were under range. This meant I was officially diagnosed as hypo thyroid. Kinda ironic as my husband is hyper thyroid. When I got home I accused him of stealing all my thyroid hormones, but it was a pretty feeble joke. Suddenly I’d gone from being a healthy person looking for a diagnosis for a skin irritation and fatigue – to a genuinely sick person on medication for life.

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Candida Diagnosis

Getting A Candida Diagnosis

20 years go by quickly and things you don’t expect to, change in 20 years!

In my twenties people could go to a GP with thrush and s/he would examine you and give you a diagnosis and a prescription. Male GPs won’t want to examine you these days unless there is a female nurse present. Yet another law of protection that to inconvenience professionals, thanks to a few abusers. But I didn’t know this!

So when I turned up for my appointment and asked to be examined for a candida diagnosis, it was not to be. I had to make another appointment as there was not a nurse on the premises. So I agreed to see the nurse doing  pap smear tests and got a referral for this exam and did that as well. Then I waited another 2 weeks for the nurse’s appointment.

I lost near 2 months this way as I made the first appointment with Dr G just before Christmas last year. I couldn’t get to see a doctor until late January, as holidays and catching up had filled the books.  After this appointment  I  visited the pathologist with a swag of papers to get blood tests for blood diseases, diabetes, thyroid, etc etc.Then I had to wait a week or so more for the results of the blood tests. In the middle of Summer it’s really not very comfortable to have thrush.

A German nurse in 2005.
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However. I saw the nurse and told her the problem I was having with what I believed to be a candida infection. Scribbled on the pap smear form from the doctor was a directive to HVS  (I think) and she translated that to mean high vaginal swab or smear.

The nurse took the swabs and was really helpful. She asked what I had tried already and went through a range of natural treatments for candida – which would have been very useful – if I hadn’t already tried them.

The only thing she suggested that I hadn’t yet tried was papaw ointment. I bought some from the chemist after we’d talked but it was not good for this usage, being sticky. Maybe for nappy rash as a barrier cream it is suitable but in the folds of the groin area its painful, don’t bother!

What I was using successfully as a maintenance treatment for the candida was Witch Hazel to stop the itching and prickly sensation and calendula cream to soothe and barrier the skin from dampness. It wasn’t curing but it made the symptoms more bearable, as the candida infection is not confined to the internal vaginal area but is also affecting the groin skin, like jock itch.

Diagnosis – Cholesterol?

I said that there was a delay in getting an appointment due to Christmas, but I also live in an area that is extremely stretched in resources due to high population growth of young families and retirement people. Dr G, The doctor I got to see was young and new to the practice (and to the country) and therefore looking for new patients. Perhaps my experience may have been different with a more experienced GP – or maybe not – who knows.

I got a call from Dr G saying my blood test had revealed high cholesterol and I should come and see him asap. As part of another story, I had just researched lipitar and my heart dropped. Sure enough when I got there this young doc was more concerned about me having a heart attack because my cholesterol was high, than anything else and wanted to prescribe a statin. Even though there were other concerns in the blood test results. Nothing major serious other than the cholesterol. But results that I can see in hindsight were the start of my slide into the black hole.

When I asked him about the nurses test results he said it seemed fine. When I asked what else I could do .. as regards the candida infection – Dr G shrugged. Sans diagnosis, sans treatment.

When he mentioned the cholesterol problem again I explained my reluctance to take statins. I said that I’d see what else I could find to use as a treatment regarding candida and would return for more blood tests in 6 months after changing my diet, and getting more exercise and taking a multivitamin. I asked for a referral – to a dermatologist, which he gave me. He suggested it would be wise to get more tests after 3 months, warning me again that high cholesterol was dangerous at my age, and moved on. So did I.

Difficult but not Impossible to Diagnose Candida

Well at least I discovered I don’t have diabetes, as the blood tests ruled that out. However I do have other problems, I just don’t know what they mean yet! I didn’t really feel a dermatologist was what I needed but I didn’t know what other type of referral to ask for.With this referral I have a copy of the blood test results, so I can start to read up and try to figure out what they mean.

I kept reading articles and trying new treatments and in this way six months passed. I grew more and more tired, needing to sleep 2 hours in the afternoon and even waking permanently tired. I could no longer concentrate on my work, and my eyes were so sore and unfocusable I had a permanent squint and the bags under my sunken eyes made me feel like an ancient crone.

I still felt candida was the main problem and kept reading about the candida diet . It was so strict however that I was reluctant to start it without getting a firm diagnosis of candida. Nowhere was there any definitive cure for candida in the forums. Just people like me struggling with guesses about multiple herbal or mineral antifungals and diet changes and expensive candida mixes if they could afford them. People who were asking how long does this take?

There is a blood test, a urine test, and a stool test for candida but if your doctor is reluctant to use a lab, it is because these tests may not give sufficiently definitive results. As the yeast itself is normal to the human body, the overgrowth forms of the yeast are difficult to test for. Either: candida is obvious – as when the white patches are observed. Or only the quantity of yeast in samples is indicative of an infection. This means Candida may be almost invisible, some people have few if any observable symptoms. See Why is Candida so hard to diagnose

I didn’t know this then, I just felt if I could get diagnosed I could start the candida diet and try those self treatment options. So I needed to find a doctor who was open to natural and supplemental treatment and had years of experience to draw from. Many years ago there was a doctor in my area, who suggested I take magnesium for a transient heart arrhythmia which worked like a charm in a few weeks. He had moved his practice and was hard to find but although now semi retired, I was able to make an appointment with Dr R.

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Candida Infection

Candida Infection

Anyone who has had a candida infection before, is unlikely to not know if they get it again. I was in my twenties the first time I experienced what a candida infection felt like. I didn’t know what it was then, just that the vagina had became sore and itchy after a course of antibiotics.

I have not been very sick often. As a child and teenager I got sore throats and earaches but after that I rarely got sick with anything that needed antibiotics.I was infected by the herpes virus in my 20s and I started to get migraines after the birth of my first son.

I read a lot about good food and I ate a good basic diet without being overly strict or faddish about it.  I enjoyed walking and swimming and I kept fit. I was also lucky enough to be genetically healthy. The only time I saw the doctor was when my kids got sick.

Still, you can’t forget Candida . It has a peculiar prickly feel about it and makes the skin feel a bit numb, as well as being sore and wet. I didn’t get a scaly rash but the skin became a little red. So when I felt this vaginal candida  again, I headed straight to the chemist and bought a tube of Canestan. I started using it and expected the candida infection to go away in a few days.

It didn’t. 🙁

So this was the start of the puzzle for me.

Which came first – the candida or the thyroid?

This candida infection was not caused by taking antibiotics, as I haven’t taken any for years. The only other cause that was likely from the list, was stress – as we have been living with debt for many years and I often worry whether we’ll make payments on time.

This candida infection was not cured by any of the various topical creams or steroid cream, or by the one dose tablet from the chemist. Or by any natural home remedies as creams, oils, astringents or antifungals.

I started to research on the internet and came across several sites advocating the Candida diet and a range of different natural remedies such as antifungals and probiotics. I read that immune diseases like diabetes might make candida resistant to treatment so I went to the doctor to get a diagnosis. Unfortunately yeast is hard to test for and gps aren’t wise to what this doctor knows.

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Equivalent Thyroid Hormone Brand For Australia

Thyroid Hormone Brands

(Article republished from the Australian Thyroid Website – see credit below)

Every day millions of Americans take a small pill to compensate for a lack of thyroid hormone in their bloodstream. The drug of choice for the treatment of this and other thyroid disorders is synthetic levothyroxine sodium. The American Druggist listed two brand-name preparations as the 3rd and 51st most prescribed drugs in the United States during 1996, accounting for over 36,000,000 prescriptions of synthetic levothyroxine last year. Physicians and scientists may use different scientific names for levothyroxine, such as L-thyroxine, thyroxine, and T4 ; however, all of these terms refer to the same chemical. Thyroid hormone replacement with synthetic levothyroxine is safe, simple, effective, and relatively inexpensive.

levothyroxine sodium USP
DESICCATED ANIMAL (“natural”) T4 /T3
DESICCATED ANIMAL (“natural”) T4 /T3
Dartnells Pharmacy
Stenlake Pharmacy

History of Thyroid Hormone Replacement

From the late 1890’s until relatively recently, physicians worldwide have treated hypothyroid patients with tablets containing desiccated (dried and powdered) animal thyroid glands. These tablets contained both levothyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). In 1958, the first synthetic levothyroxine tablets were marketed in the United States. Because thyroid hormones were on the market before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laws were in place, manufacturers of these hormones were not required to meet the extensive testing requirements of safety and effectiveness required of all new drugs introduced after 1938. In other words, thyroid hormone replacements, such as synthetic levothyroxine, were “grandfathered” into the system; consequently, there are no FDA approved procedures or standards for testing these preparations other than specifying that each pill contain between 90% to 110% of the stated chemical content.

Who Needs It?

The majority of patients taking levothyroxine have a permanent form of hypothyroidism and will take one pill, every day, for the rest of their lives. The causes of permanent hypothyroidism are listed below:

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland)
  • Radioactive iodine treatment for hyperthyroidism
  • Surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland
  • Congenital abnormalities, including an absence of the thyroid gland
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Radiation for cancers, such as Hodgkin’s disease
  • Pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction
  • Unknown causes (idiopathic)

Levothyroxine therapy may also be indicated for patients with goiter, solitary thyroid nodule, multinodular goiter, thyroid cancer, thyroiditis, and hyperthyroidism treated with antithyroid drugs. In addition to the thyroid disorders listed here, some physicians have found that levothyroxine can enhance the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and use it temporarily to treat depressed patients.

Thyroid Hormones in the Bloodstream

Levothyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are the thyroid hormones that circulate throughout the bloodstream. The thyroid gland is the sole source of T4 . However, only 10% to 20% of T3 is made in the thyroid gland; the remaining 80% to 90% is produced when T4 is broken down into T3 by other organs in the body.

When a patient takes levothyroxine, the level of T4 in the blood rises and falls slowly. On the other hand, when a patient takes medications containing the much more potent T3, the blood level of T3 rises quickly to hyperthyroid levels and falls rapidly. Therefore, preparations containing T3 cause patients to become hyperthyroid several hours a day. Substituting one disease–hyperthyroidism–for another is not desirable.

Synthetic vs. “Natural” Thyroid Hormone

Nearly everyone can take synthetic levothyroxine; it is identical to the body’s own T4 . However, some patients, thinking that “natural” means better, prefer natural thyroid hormones, which are made of desiccated animal thyroid glands. Thyroid hormones derived from animals invariably contain T3 and, as previously noted, should not be used because they can cause hyperthyroidism. Another advantage of synthetic levothyroxine is that it has a longer shelf life than natural thyroid hormones.

Brand-Name vs. Generic

There are three well-tested, brand-name levothyroxine preparations available in the United States for the treatment of thyroid patients: Levothroid®, Levoxyl®, and Synthroid®. ( By the end of this year, Euthyrox®, which is marketed in twenty-nine other countries, will become the fourth brand-name levothyroxine product to be sold here.) Although there may be differences in the manufacturing, composition (dyes and fillers), and absorption rates among these prep-arations, each of these brand-name products is reliable and offers predictable results. Although changing from one brand to another does not usually cause problems, it is preferable to take the same brand consistently.

Generic levothyroxine tablets have not been widely recommended for several reasons:

  • Scientific studies have shown that, for some generics, the T4 content of each pill can be outside the FDA range of 90% to 110% of the stated chemical content. While a 20% range may not be a significant factor for some drugs, very small amounts of thyroid hormone can make quite a difference in the treatment of thyroid patients. For example, for some patients, a 12.5% variation in levothyroxine dosage can mean the difference between hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (having the proper amount of thyroid hormone in the body). Therefore, it is essential that patients with thyroid disease take the exact amount of prescribed levothyroxine to ensure successful treatment.
  • There have been additional concerns about the quality control in the production of generic levothyroxine, especially since generic manufacturers tend to come and go in the marketplace with great frequency, making them less accountable than long-standing manufacturers of levothyroxine. The 1997 Red Book, a pharmacist’s guide to prescription generic and brand-name drugs, lists twenty-five companies distributing synthetic levothyroxine. (Some of these companies manufacture and distribute levothyroxine tablets, and others just distribute them.) Since publication, many of the listed companies are not making or selling synthetic levothyroxine.
  • From prescription to prescription, patients may be given a different generic preparation each time, making it impractical, if not impossible, to determine if retesting patients’ thyroid hormone levels is necessary.
  • While brand-name levothyroxine preparations come in eleven to twelve different strengths, generics have less variety of strengths from which to choose. Of the generic levothyroxine distri-butors listed in the Red Book, 44% have one to four strengths available; the remaining offer five to eight strengths. For patients whose levothyroxine dosage must be adjusted several times due to age or other medical conditions, it would be difficult to stay with the same product if certain incremental changes are made.

  • Synthetic levothyroxine is the treatment of choice for thyroid hormone replacement; brand-name levothyroxine is preferable to generic preparations.
  • A diagnosis of permanent hypothyroidism requires lifetime treatment with levothyroxine.
  • The average dose of prescribed levothyroxine is between 100 mcg (0.1 mg) and 125 mcg (0.125 mg); one-third of the levothyroxine prescriptions filled are for 100 mcg.
  • If the type, brand, or dosage of levothyroxine is changed, patients should have their blood levels of thyroid hormones checked two to three months later.
  • Taking more levothyroxine than prescribed does not speed up recovery and may cause hyperthyroidism and osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).
  • Taking the proper dose of levothyroxine will not increase a patient’s risk of developing osteoporosis.
  • Levothyroxine treatment is not indicated for patients with fatigue, obesity, or infertility unless the patients also have a confirmed diagnosis of hypothyroidism.
  • The warning on some non-prescription cold and flu preparations to avoid taking them if the patient has thyroid disease does not apply to hypothyroid patients taking levothyroxine in the prescribed amounts.
  • Pregnant women and nursing mothers can safely take levothyroxine. In fact, patients with inadequately treated hypothyroidism have an increased risk of miscarriage

Findings of a very informal, “unscientific” survey of levothyroxine prices at four Houston pharmacies in July 1997. If you are concerned about the cost of your thyroid hormone replacement, do your own “survey” by calling several of the pharmacies in your area.
100mcg/0.1 mg
100 Tablets
Chain One Chain Two Independent
Synthroid® $22.99 $22.49 $42.50 $33.65
Levoxyl® $9.99 $11.09 $29.00 $21.70
Levothroid® $22.99 $11.09 $26.70 $35.00
generic Levoxyl® Levoxyl® $35.00 Levoxyl®
* Pharmacy uses Levoxyl® to fill generic prescriptions.
100mcg/0.1 mg
Average Wholesale Price
for 100 Tablets
Synthroid® $22.70
Levothroid® $18.56
Levoxyl® $12.17
generic $3.05 to $21.45
In Australia the supply of Oroxine® is covered by the Pharaceutical Benefits Scheme and patients can expect to pay $15.00 for 200 100mcg tablets

The question of brand-name versus generic levothyroxine has never been more controversial or hotly debated than in the last year. An article in the April 25, 1996 issue of The Wall Street Journal revealed that the brand-name manufacturer who controls 84% of the levothyroxine market in the United States was trying to withhold the results of a study it had commissioned. The controversial study was eventually published in the April 16, 1997 edition of The Journal of the American Medical Association. Designed to determine whether two generic levothyroxine products and two brand-name levothyroxine products were bioequivalent, the study concluded that the four drugs tested were bioequivalent and could be used interchangeably. Since that time, scientists and physicians have debated the merits, flaws, and significance of the study. Interestingly, the two generic levothyroxine preparations used in this controversial study were actually manufactured by the same company and distributed by two other companies. Since the time of the study, one company, after switching manufacturers, has discontinued distributing levothyroxine tablets. The second company has also switched to another manufacturer and is currently distributing only one strength (25 mcg) of levothyroxine.

Where does the controversy surrounding brand-name vs. generic leave thyroid patients who depend on levothyroxine? Will physicians change their guidelines for prescribing levothyroxine? Both the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) publish guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism. AACE guidelines still recommend a brand-name preparation of levothyroxine over a generic; the ATA guidelines state that levothyroxine sodium is the treatment of choice, without specifying brand-name or generic. However, both the ATA and AACE recommend that patients be retested and their dosage adjusted accordingly if patients switch levothyroxine products. (Neither The Endocrine Society nor the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-the division of the National Institutes of Health that studies thyroid disease-has published guidelines for the treatment of thyroid disease or has a stated position concerning the brand-name vs. generic issue.) Because the FDA regulations only concern the amount of stated chemical content and because researchers cannot seem to agree on the most reliable and relevant methods for testing and comparing levothyroxine preparations, it appears likely that the controversy of brand-name or generic will continue for some time. Until more testing, evaluation, and information become available, The Thyroid Society believes that it would be prudent to continue to follow the same course of action that has yielded reliable, consistent results with a minimum of additional laboratory tests and office visits. Brand-name synthetic levothyroxine can assure physicians and patients predictable results and is, therefore, the levothyroxine preparation of choice.

Cost Factors

Patients may be concerned about the costs involved in lifetime thyroid hormone replacement. Compared to other drugs, levothyroxine is relatively inexpensive. As can be seen in the table National Comparisons, the average wholesale price for the three leading brand-name levothyroxine products in the U.S. varies as much as 40%.The previously mentioned controversial study implied that generics could save consumers a great deal of money, and, indeed, most people expect generics to be less expensive than brand-names. In fact, generic prices can either be much less expensive or more expensive than a given brand-name product, depending upon the manufacturer, distributor, and pharmacy (see table Levothyroxine Prices – Houston). Depending on where you buy your generic levothyroxine, it might cost more than a brand-name. If cost savings is the incentive to switch to generic levothyroxine, the additional laboratory testing and office visits recommended when patients change from one levothyroxine product to another could offset or exceed any perceived cost savings. Some patients have expressed concern that their managed healthcare program will restrict the use of brand-name levothyroxine. Each managed healthcare plan has developed a list of drugs (a formulary) that they will cover for certain diseases. Typically, the patient pays a flat rate, or co-pay, for each prescription they have filled, regardless of the actual cost of a drug. Some plans only allow a 30-day supply of any medication to be filled at one time. If the average co-pay is $5, the patient will spend a total of $15 for 90 tablets of levothyroxine-generic or brand-name-and will go to the pharmacy three times. The patient might have spent less money and avoided two additional trips to the pharmacy by paying in full for a prescription of 100 tablets of a lower priced brand-name levothyroxine. Patients should discuss with their physician any financial concerns they have about levothyroxine so that the physician can take this information into consideration when prescribing the best treatment for the patient. In addition, thyroid patients with managed healthcare plans can discuss their concerns about their treatment with the plan’s administrator.


The exact amount of levothyroxine prescribed to correct thyroid disorders must be individualized for each patient. When determining the initial dose of levothyroxine, physicians take several factors into consideration:

  • The patient’s age
  • The patient’s weight
  • The patient’s heart status
  • The severity of hypothyroidism

The majority of patients can be started on full thyroid hormone replacement. Patients with a history of heart problems are sometimes started on an a relatively low dosage-25 mcg (0.025 mg) to 50 mcg (0.05 mg)-of levothyroxine. [EDITOR: In Australia, Sigma Pharmaceuticals, the maker of Oroxine, recommends that all patients start on a low dose. It is Thyroid Australia’s experience that petients starting on a full dose frequently experience overdose symptoms.] The amount of levothyroxine is gradually increased every four to six weeks until the patient becomes euthyroid.

Patients who have had their entire thyroid surgically removed because of thyroid cancer typically require considerably higher doses of levothyroxine than patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis who have some remaining thyroid function. In addition, women taking estrogens for birth control or menopause may require higher doses of levothyroxine. Patients should not expect to feel better immediately after beginning treatment with levothyroxine, even if the initial dosage is correct. It may take six weeks or more before they experience a full response to treatment. Patients are usually re- examined and have repeat thyroid function tests two to three months after they are started on levothyroxine. If dosage adjustments are necessary, patients are re-examined and tested in another two or three months. Once patients’ thyroid hormone levels are within the proper range, they are ordinarily seen no less than once a year. Physicians may change patients’ levothyroxine dosage for various reasons, including aging and changes in patients’ medical condition.

Patients who become pregnant or start taking estrogen should see their physician two months later to determine if their levothyroxine should be increased. Pregnant women should also be checked again when they are five to six months pregnant and three to four months after they deliver. Additionally, adjustments in the dosage of levothyroxine are sometimes necessary because of changes in the thyroid disease itself. For example, if a patient is being treated for hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, over time, this inflammation could damage additional thyroid gland tissue, causing it to produce even less thyroid hormone.

When to Take Levothyroxine

Levothyroxine should be taken daily, unless otherwise directed by the physician. For patients who have trouble remembering to take their medication, inexpensive pill boxes can be helpful. If a pill is forgotten, the patient can either take it the next day or at the end of the week. (“Doubling up” on other medications is not advisable without first checking with a physician.) Since food- especially high-fiber food and soy bean products- can interfere with absorption of levothyroxine, it is best to take levothyroxine on an empty stomach, twenty to thirty minutes before breakfast. Several drugs can also cause absorption problems. For example, Feosol®, Fergon®, prenatal vitamins, and other preparations containing large amounts of iron can significantly interfere with levothy-roxine absorption. Another drug that can cause problems is sucralfate (Carafate®), which is used in the treatment of ulcers and esophagitis. Therefore, iron and sucralfate should be taken two to four hours after levothyroxine. Patients should also avoid taking levothyroxine and antacids containing aluminum hydroxide at the same time. Drugs used to treat high cholesterol, such as Questran® and Colestid® have an even more dramatic effect on levothyroxine absorption. These drugs should be taken at least four hours, and preferably twelve hours, after levothyroxine. The effects of drugs, supplements, and diet on levothyroxine absorption can be significant. Therefore, it is always advisable for patients to tell the physician treating their thyroid disease about all of the other medications or supplements they take. It is also important for thyroid patients to tell physicians treating them for other disorders that they are taking levothyroxine. The Thyroid Society strongly encourages patients to discuss their concerns about levothyroxine therapy with their physician. Each patient is unique, and the physician managing their disease is in the best position to advise them on their treatment plan. By focusing this edition of The Thyroid Connection on levothyroxine therapy, The Thyroid Society hopes that patients will better understand the importance of taking their thyroid hormone replacement and that they will find it easier to follow their physician’s instructions.

This article is reproduced in full and acknowledges the source below
(c) Copyright 2001, Thyroid Australia Limited ABN 71 094 832 023
333 Waverley Road, Mount Waverley, 3149, Australia
Thyroid Australia Home –

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Pyramid v Primal